The Architect Insider

Mike Cohn

The Art of Compromise: Scrum and Project Governance

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The concepts of agility and project governance are not fundamentally opposed. Each is an attempt to improve the finished product. Scrum strives to do this through close collaboration and the short inspect-and-adapt cycles of the timeboxed sprints. Project governance strives to do it by what we might call inspect-and-approve (or reject) checkpoints in which the product or project is compared to a set of desirable attributes.

However, while pursuing similar goals, Scrum and project governance take entirely different routes to achieving those goals. It is in these different routes where problems will arise in mixing the two. Fortunately, a few compromises on each side, combined with the following actions, can lead to a successful combination of agility and oversight.

Negotiate and set expectations up front. Undoubtedly, the first Scrum project to go through the governance process in your company will have challenges. There will almost certainly be some things they cannot do; for example, a Scrum team cannot provide a thorough design before getting permission to start coding, because design and coding will be done concurrently. The only solution to this is for the team to negotiate with the necessary governance groups in advance. The more support a team has for this and the higher up in the organization that this support reaches, the better. The team does not need to solicit a permanent change in governance policies. The change can be pitched as a one-time experiment.

Fit your reporting to current expectations. The project review boards or oversight committees that provide project governance have existing expectations for what information each project is to provide at each checkpoint. Don't fight these expectations. If they expect a Gantt chart, provide a Gantt chart. When you can, however, try to slowly shift expectations by providing additional, more agile-friendly information. If burndown charts are suitable to show, do so. Or perhaps you want to include a report showing the number of times the build server kicked off continuously integrated builds and the thousands (or perhaps tens or hundreds of thousands) of test runs that were executed.

Invite them into your process. Scrum teams can supplement less-detailed formal governance checkpoints by inviting governance committee members to participate in the regular meetings they will hold. I like to extend the well-known technique of management by walking around into management by standing around. Encourage managers and executives involved in the governance of a project to attend the daily scrums, where they can stand and listen to what is occurring on the project. The same shift from documents to discussions that is created by working with user stories needs to occur with project reporting. Encourage people to visit the team or join its meetings to see for themselves what is being built.

Reference a success. Nothing convinces like success. Do whatever you can to get a first project or two through lightened or reduced governance checkpoints. Then point to the success of those projects as evidence that future projects should also be allowed through.

It's one thing to look at agile software development in a test tube; it's another to experience it in the real world. In the test tube, agile methodologies like Scrum are easily adopted by all members, and the nasty realities of corporate politics, economics, and such cannot intrude. In the real world, though, all of these unpleasant issues do exist. It is rarely as simple as deciding to use Scrum and then being able to do so with no other constraints.

Because few organizations will go so far initially as to completely revamp their current approaches to governance, teams need to work with their organization's non-agile governance. Adopting an attitude of compromise and taking the actions outlined above will go a long way towards easing those first Scrum projects through the gates.

Succedding_with_Agile.jpgMike Cohn is author of Succeeding with Agile: Software Development Using Scrum, published by Addison-Wesley Professional, Nov. 2009, ISBN 0321579364, Copyright 2010 Mike Cohn. For more info, please visit: www.informit.com/title/0321579364

Mike Cohn, founder of Mountain Goat Software, provides training and consulting on Scrum and agile software development to help companies build extremely high-performance development organizations. He authored two of the agile movement's most respected books, User Stories Applied for Agile Software Development and Agile Estimating and Planning. He cofounded the Agile Alliance, Agile Project Leadership Network, and Scrum Alliance.

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1 Comment

Normally governance is PMBoK driven. This can take us again to try to trace forward PMI practices to their agile counter-part.

Let me explain my take here of this traceability or translation approach by analogy to language learning. Imagine your first language is Arabic and whenever you communicate in English you first put the Arabic version then you translate to English. You know what, people can find you "ineffective".

Imagine now you understand the English culture and why people behave and express in certain ways. Instead of starting from your first language you directly use English based on this culture understanding. Your communication will be much more effective.


The Architect Insider is an online resource from ebizQ that drills down on enterprise software development. The content will focus on best practices and solutions for the Software Architect, Senior Architect, Project Manager and Senior Developer. TAI will focus on Java, IBM Websphere, Oracle Fusion .NET, SOA, and Agile with articles, webinars, blogs and whitepapers.

Jayaprakash Kannoth

Jayaprakash Kannoth is Software Engineer at TechTarget. His areas of interest include business process management, enterprise architecture, business intelligence , cloud/infrastructure computing and technology in business.
The opinions expressed herein are my own and do not represent my employer’s views in any way.

Mike Cohn

Mike Cohn, founder of Mountain Goat Software, provides training and consulting on Scrum and agile software development to help companies build extremely high-performance development organizations. He authored two of the agile movement’s most respected books, User Stories Applied for Agile Software Development and Agile Estimating and Planning. He cofounded the Agile Alliance, Agile Project Leadership Network, and Scrum Alliance.

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