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Is BPMN compatible with adaptive case management?

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From this Sandy Kemsley blog, is BPMN compatible with adaptive case management?

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  • Apples and oranges. BPMN is a practitioner's, implementer's tool used to model a process, to whatever degree of "structured" or "unstructured." ACM fans will tell you that it's all about flexibility, that a BPMN model is temporal, can't do it, blah, blah, blah...

    Bottom line, BPMN is one way to represent a process and as long as that representation is accurate, the semantics from others on slicing and dicing to the nth degree is moot.

    Just my tuppence.

    - Pat

  • I'd use the word 'interoperable'. They are discrete technologies with very different processing engines, but an 'adaptive' process should be built for interoperability, otherwise its use is highly constrained.

  • I think Sandy gets it exactly right. And I like Patrick's take on it as well.

  • Peter, thank for entertaining a discussion on this.

    When hearing the term "business process", most people think of a STATIC business process - that is one that is done the same way more than once. BPMN has been designed to use on processes that can be repeated -- otherwise you would never bother.

    With ACM, we talk about work which, in some cases, is never done the same way twice.

    A good example is patient treatment plans. I am not talking about "Patient: I have a cold. Doctor: take two aspirins and call me in the morning." I am talking about real patients with real problems, possibly a complication of an accident, or a combination of symptoms that are not found in a text book.

    It is not uncommon for a doctor to come up with a treatment plan that is UNIQUE for that patient. Across millions of patients there are probably duplicates, but in a particular medical center this treatment plan may never have been prescribed exactly this way before, and it may never be needed again.

    Treatment plans are IMPORTANT. Patients may have allergies to particular types of medication. There may be a combination of problems that prevent using the standard treatment. Each patient has different amounts of stamina and general health, which may make different approaches more promising. A doctor draws on many many sources of information (sometimes doing serious research on what is currently available). In the end the doctor must come up with a treatment plan, give it to the patient, and institute some means for following up.

    Could this treatment plan be represented in BPMN: Yes.
    Would it be accurate: Yes.
    Would it be understandable: Yes.
    Is it overkill: Yes.

    Who here thinks that a doctor will be drawing a BPMN diagram for this treatment plan?

    This is what we mean by an adaptive process: it is NOT static, it is modified by the professionals themselves. It may be saved and reused, but it is more often modified before use.

    Maybe we just need to train the doctors? Maybe it is intelligence? Doctors are smart enough, but they have no time or need to learn BPMN diagrams. They are busy. If they had extra time, they would use it to find better medical treatment, not how to draw diagram.

    --> There is no real advantage of a BPMN diagram for a treatment plan.

    This has nothing to do with the complexity of the treatment plan, or how complicated the BPMN diagram is. Even if the treatment plan is just "take two aspirins" I can not imagine a doctor drawing a BPMN diagram of this. It would be silly.

    But wait: can't we have both? That is: some treatment plans are drawn in BPMN, and others as a simple task list. The problem is that no treatment plan is 100% correct, and most have to be modified. If the doctor is not used to drawing BPMN diagrams, then the doctor will not be able to modify one either. Those treatment plans drawn in BPMN will remain static, and will not be adaptive.

    If you think that a patient treatment plan is not a good example of an ACM case, then perhaps you don't understand ACM.

    Doctors may make use of systems that use BPMN: no problem. When I say that BPMN is incompatible with ACM, I mean that the actual case manager experience can not include BPMN for their own adaptive plans. Doctors will use many BPM systems based on BPMN. But the treatment plan, the part that the doctor is responsible for drawing up to fit a particular patient, will simply NOT be drawn in BPMN. Not now, not ever.

    http://social-biz.org/2012/07/21/bpmn-is-incompatible-with-acm/

    I am begging to be proven wrong: show me a medical center where a doctors are drawing up treatment plans in BPMN!

    • so... just to be clear. if someone disagrees with your use case, they don't understand acm? :) So we just have to agree with you, then! problem solved!

      this goes to the heart of the correction in your blog post (with mostly same content). no one is saying doctors should draw bpmn. you're having that argument with exactly no one.

      What people are often arguing is that a BPMS (even using a BPMN model) can be written to completely encompass ACM features required for a treatment plan. The end-users will never touch BPMN any more than they would have to in a BPMS deployment. Users might only see a checklist, a moveable, editable checklist, to cite one of your favorite examples. voila! paper covers rock.

  • Agree with Patrick that they are of a complete different order.

    It's like a roadmap vs the real trip. (Model vs Execution)

    So will a roadmap written in BPMN be useful for making a trip ACM style (I know my destination, but the road will be decided during the trip)?

    Oh wait, most are always talking tool here, so ACM will probably mean 'A tool to support the execution of ACM style processes'

    Then it's actually Roadmap vs a satnav.

    So,can you use a roadmap in BPMN to install a satnav to support you during your ACM style trip?


    Actually I have no clue, I fell asleep on page 2 of the 'Ultimate guide on BPMN'

  • What an amusing or to use Keith's word (out of context) entertaining discussion :-)

    Doctors, Lawyers and any other of the candidate examples used for ACM, just as with examples used for BPM still use a process to conduct their business. So at one level any kind of notation suitable for describing and documenting processes can be used for both.

    Secondly, whether we execute work in a BPMS or with an ACMS, or any other kind of computer system, we are doing just that designing and developing a software system, and do do so requires a more detailed level of procedure to be described. Again an ACM just like any other system needs that level of detail. So no real difference here then.

    As to whether BPMN is suitable for ACM, well at the process level as I say above then yes it as as suitable for ACM as it is in describing any other type of process. The issue might be that it is not as suitable for building implementation models for ACM as it is for implementation models of BPM, but even then I find that I hard to believe and indeed know that there are many who have very successfully used BPMN for ACM in the same way as they have created ACMS with BPMS toolsets.

    The argument as to whether business people would be able to construct BPMN diagrams is moot, intelligent people can learn to do almost anything. The argument would be whether for ACM, BPM or anything else, whether BPMN is the appropriate notation for business people to describe and document processes at a the level they require and in a way which when presented back are understandable and best suited to communicating information, bearing in mind they will have activities in their processes that are nothing to do with computer systems. I suggest that in most cases BPMN is not the ideal. However, BPMN is well suited for IT professionals wishing to document computer systems that they then wish to implement and this takes at least one part of the population nearer to the holy grail of true model driven development.

  • Many apologies for writing what ended up being a bog post into my response.

    I am glad we seem agree that doctors, judges, social workers, etc will not use BPMN to plan in order to achieve their goals.

    Those roles (doctors, judges, social workers, etc) are in fact case managers, because they manage cases, and they are the important roles in case management. When we talk about a user of case management, we normally mean the case manager, at least as far as planning is concerned.

    There seems to have been an ongoing confusion about "use" of the ACMS, and "development" of the ACM System. Clearly, the programmers that develop an ACMS may use lots of different technologies that are out of the reach of the case manager, including BPMN. You wouldn't really say that a programmer "uses" the ACM system if they are "developing" it. Does that make sense? Clearly is is the case manager (and case participants) that "use" a case management system.

    To me is it clear that case managers (i.e. doctors, judges, social workers) will not "use" BPMN while they are "using" an ACMS. As you know, the planning of activities must be done by the case manager directly, and so BPMN can not be the notation for this planning.

    At the same time, doctors, judges, social workers will also use BPM systems. It is reasonable to assume that the BPM system will be programmed using BPMN. This is not a problem because in a BPM system, the user is not involved in creating and modifying the process definitions. Only the programmers (process analysts) work with the BPMN. Just because a case manager uses a BPMS at times, does not mean that the ACMS includes the BPM capability.

    I don't understand Emiel's statement about BPM being the map, and ACM being the real trip. Normal BPM gives you a BPMN map, and the process instance chooses a route through it at run time. In ACM you actually make plans which are models of what you are going to do, and later you actually do them. There is no diagram that acts as a map of all possible routes, and ACM is not just a route on that map. ACM is about innovation, and doing things that have never been done before, and therefor do not exist on any map. I fear that your analogy with maps is more misleading than helpful -- or maybe you can explain it again?

    Mark, you say "many who have very successfully used BPMN for ACM." Really? Who? Are you sure it was ACM? There are a lot of people spreading disinformation that ACM is just another kind of BPM (and this is just making people confused). You say "they have created ACMS with BPMS toolsets". Really? Are you sure it really was ACM, or was it a vendor just claiming to implement ACM? I would like to see those examples documented, but nobody has done this yet. Please cite your sources. But perhaps you just mean that the programmers that implemented the ACM system used BPMN and kept it hidden under the covers. That might be so, but the question is: what does the case manager use? Remember, case managers actually create the plans while they work, so when we talk about "using" and ACMS, we are only concerned about what the case manager sees and uses.

    http://social-biz.org/2012/09/18/bpmn-%e2%87%92-acm/

  • Keith,

    I have some cheap glasses for you ;-) because I didn't write BPM, but BPMN. You missed the N.

    And if you read BPM then indeed it's a stupid statement.

    A model in BPMN (or any other modelling notation like 3m), is the roadmap for the trip you will make. And if the trip is more workflow style or more acm style, that always depends on the products or services you are delivering.

    So Keith, read again and change BPM in BPMN ;-)

    Happy processing!

  • Flow-diagrams alone are just a small part of a process definition and they produce a huge limitation in what processes can be represented.

    The main problem is that there is no fully defined ACM functionality as there is no fully defined BPM functionality. One could easily claim that BPMN is not sufficient to do proper BPM. It just depends on where your priorities are. Many BPM vendors offer a lot more functionality in their toolkits than BPMN offers.

    From a performer perspective BPMN is a no-go to define their knowledge work. From a supervisor and process owner perspective and looking at the real-world mix of adaptive and flow-diagrammed processes, BPMN is not sufficient to do ACM either. It misses goal definitions, rules and data.

    Both essential for telling people what to do. Sharing, planning and supervising knowledge work is a lot easier when one can take a flow-perspective during or after process completion. But it needs extension to BPMN for goals, rules, business entities and content. Which is in principle allowed and was suggested at the recent BPM2012 conference by several papers.

    We are successfully doing extended-BPMN since 2009 to allow those flow-diagram views. If it is a purely ad-hoc created case, then the tasks are just listed without dependencies in a goal-defining-swimlane. The performer never sees the BPMN, just task lists in goals. But both tasks and goals need embedded rules and those rules need embedded data entities to make it work. So standard-BPMN alone is not sufficient.

    ACM is a form of BPM using a different, more performer enabling methodology. It does away with the analysis and simulation steps. The real world is much more telling. It can go further than typical BPM, but not if flow-diagrams are a no-no. Just flow-diagrams and you get stuck at 50% of your processes. No flow-diagrams and you get stuck at 50% of your processes. You need two toolkits and you won't be able to have processes that have predictable and unpredictable parts. They can change over time in both directions.

    For me (extended-) BPMN can be a part of an ACM solution but it doesn't have to be. It depends how far you want to take ACM in your organization.

  • one man's truth is another man's disinformation.

  • Emiel, is this better?:
    ---------
    I don't understand Emiel's statement about BPMN being the map, and ACM being the real trip. Normal BPM gives you a BPMN map, and the process instance chooses a route through it at run time. In ACM you actually make plans which are models of what you are going to do, and later you actually do them. There is no diagram that acts as a map of all possible routes, and ACM is not just a route on that map. ACM is about innovation, and doing things that have never been done before, and therefor do not exist on any map. I fear that your analogy with maps is more misleading than helpful -- or maybe you can explain it again?
    --------
    In BPM you have a BPMN map, and the process instance goes through it. In ACM, there is no map (BPMN or otherwise) and you make up the route as you go along. I don't understand why you think ACM has such a map.

    • Keith, much better ;-)

      But, with my analogy roadmap -satnav -trip I was not making a statement, but raising a question:

      - Does an ACM style trip need a detailed roadmap made upfront?

      So when you know the destination but you've never been there before and you don't know what problems you will face on your trip, is it useful to spend time on a detailed roadmap, or is it better to prepare in another way for the trip?

      So the question is if you need the map or not. And whether it's drawn in BPMN or something else, I couldn't care less.

      But talking about confusing. Why make ACM so special (people have been doing their jobs acm style for ages)and place it against 'normal bpm'.


      It's all about executing a process to reach a result. Only processes might differ in characteristics and might be managed in different ways to get there.

      So instead of spending time on this workflow-bpm-acm discussions, let's help companies to make clear what processes they have and what characteristics these processes need in order to deliver what they promise.

      I don't think companies care if their process is ACM or 'normal bpm'. They just want it to work for their situation.

      But again, excuse for the confusion. I was not stating, but questioning if the execution of ACM style processes needs a map.

      But I have to go now. I got stuck in the mud and have to be at a meeting at 9am. ....wish I bought a map...


  • The book was called "Mastering the Unpredictable". That is because it was a proposed technique to handle unpredictable work patterns.

    Doubting Thomas: "You can't really be talking about unpredictable things. You must be talking about regular old routine processes, but just saying it this way to make it sound fancy."

    No really, we are talking about knowledge workers, and a way that each knowledge worker can specify their own pattern of goals, adding and removing goals as they need it.

    Doubting Thomas: "You can't really be talking about knowledge workers doing this, you must really mean programmers and system designers. They are the only ones who draw BPMN diagrams."

    No really, this is not about routine processes. It is about work situations that are different everytime, and for which the knowledge worker brings unique knowledge to.

    Doubting Thomas: "You can't be really talking about work where the process is different every time. You SHOULD be talking about repeatable, routine processes, which can be diagrammed with a prescriptive language, and are done over and over again the same way."

    That is just it: the name of the book is "Mastering the Unpredictable" because it is not about predictable, repeatable processes. BPM is for predictable processes.

    Doubting Thomas: "There you go again, saying it is not BPM. We know that this is BPM, and it is about predictable processes, but you just keep on confusing us by saying it is about something else. When are you going to quite lying."

    But we said at the very beginning, in the TITLE of the book, that it is about work pattern that don't repeat. We said that traditional approaches of pre-defining the process map will not work, and that is the reason we need to look for an approach that has different design criteria.

    Doubting Thomas: "It's all about executing a process to reach a result. Only processes might differ in characteristics and might be managed in different ways to get there. Therefor you are really just talking about BPM and giving it another trumped-up name."

    We called it "Mastering the Unpredictable" because it really really is about work situations that are unique, and don't repeat.

    Doubting Thomas: "That is just silly. All work repeats. No one ever does anything new. We come to work and we do exactly the same thing all day long. Process designers just need to write down the process and it will all be automated."

    But not knowledge workers. These are people who think for a living. These are people who figure out by themselves what the right thing to do next. Consider Dr. House (the fictional TV character) who has to come up with innovative treatments and often changes the treatments mid-way through.

    Doubting Thomas: "If all we are talking about is people winging it on the fly. Why are we even talking about it? We should be talking about repeatable, predictable processes that have logic and fixed procedures. ACM should really be about the repeatable (and yes, extensible) logic, not just the ad hoc."

    You are welcome to talk about routine, predictable processes all you want. But ACM is about unpredictable processes that can not be (fully) defined in advanced. ACM is about "Mastering the Unpredictable" when you don't have the luxury of a repeating process. What do you do then?

    Doubting Thomas: "That’s just ad hoc, a checklist made up on the fly. And even with less ingenious practitioners we have it already: it’s called the patient chart."

    Many people do this today with paper and pencil, but the vision with ACM is that there is a better way. Paper does not communicate over long distances and to large groups of people when needed. Paper does not allow for aggregate analysis across many cases to see what approaches are working. Paper does not inform remote people of things that need to be done, and remind them as deadlines approach. In many ways, ACM will act like that paper patient chart, and the doctor will see it very might analogous to that, but it has some nice characteristics beyond just paper, or beyond just a Google doc.

    Doubting Thomas: "But you said this was about work, and work is organized, done the same way every time. I really want to talk about repeatable work processes. Why do you get off on slapping BPMN down anyway?"

    You are welcome to talk about BPM and repeatable processes all you want. However, ACM is about unpredictable processes, ones that are not routine, and are performed differently every time. That is why we called the book "Mastering the Unpredictable". I don't have anything against BPMN if you have repeatable processes. My point was to show that it is unsuitable for knowledge workers who have to change the process all the time.

    Doubting Thomas: "whether we execute work in a BPMS or with an ACMS, or any other kind of computer system, we are doing just that designing and developing a software system, and do do so requires a more detailed level of procedure to be described. Again an ACM just like any other system needs that level of detail. So no real difference here then."

    From the beginning, I have said that knowledge workers have to specify their own goals, their own procedures, their own sequences of tasks. They can't do this "up front" and that the definition of the process (the set of goals) emerges out of the working activity. I am not just making this up. The situation is defined as this one where you can't define the exact sequence up front in ANY level of detail. This seems to imply to me that we are not just "designing and developing a software system." If you can achieve the goal of handling unpredictable processes that way, then I am all ears. But so far, instead of talking about how to support unpredictable processes, people keep telling me that we should focus on predictable, routine processes.

    Doubting Thomas: "I don't think companies care if their process is ACM or 'normal bpm'. They just want it to work for their situation."

    Well, yes, they don't care. The point is that there is a situation of unpredictable processes. How does that get supported? There is no evidence that unpredictable situations can be supported with an approach that requires the process to be designed in advance.

    Doubting Thomas: "Bottom line, BPMN is one way to represent a process and as long as that representation is accurate, the semantics from others on slicing and dicing to the nth degree is moot."

    The critical issue is not accuracy. Next time you go to the grocery store, draw a BPMN diagram in advance of EVERYTHING you are going to do. Do it in advance, or do it while you shop, but don't do anything that is not on the diagram. I am completely safe in knowing that NOBODY will do this, because it is ridiculous amount of overhead. But the BPMN diagram will be accurate. It could be complete. It is obviously a great way to represent the shopping process. Why then, you must ask, don't people use BPMN diagrams to plan their grocery shopping?

    Doubting Thomas: "That is completely unfair. Shopping isn't work! Work is stuff that is repeatable, regularly, and done the same way every time. Shopping is all messy and complicated. I am getting different things every time. Sometimes I need a few special ingredients for something I am planning to cook. Other times I have to replace staples normally well stocked but eventually ran out. Sometimes I even figure out what I am going to cook based on what I see in the store. This is just not at all a description of a business process because it is so UNPREDICTABLE."

    That is the point. Many of the things that knowledge workers do is like shopping. You have a goal (a shopping list), and the goal can even change while you are shopping, but you just figure out while you are there exactly what to do. This is what we mean by an emergent process.

    Doubting Thomas: "The argument as to whether business people would be able to construct BPMN diagrams is moot, intelligent people can learn to do almost anything. "

    Of course, an intelligent person can create a BPMN diagram in advance of grocery shopping, but they WON'T, and the reason is fairly obvious.

    Doubting Thomas: "But then you don't need a BPM system at all. You need a shopping list. BPMN would be comlete overkill."

    That is my conclusion as well. BPMN is incompatible with what knowledge workers, the users of an ACM system, will need to do.

    Doubting Thomas: "OK, but some programmer might use BPMN inside the system, and completely hide it so that the knowledge worker does not even know they are using it. The end-users will never touch BPMN any more than they would have to in a BPMS deployment."

    Yes, that is true. The system might be built using BPMN internally. But remember, that we called the book "Mastering the Unpredictable" because the processes can not be specified in advance. The idea is that the knowledge worker must create the goals and steps as they work. That list of goals, or steps to achieve them, is the real process in the work case. It is that process that drives the case forward, and it is that process that can not be specified in BPMN. If you are talking about pre-defined processes embedded in the system, then that is a BPM system, and certainly case managers, knowledge workers will also use BPM systems. But don't get confused: those pre-defined processes don't address the problem of "Mastering the Unpredictable".

    Doubting Thomas: "But talking about confusing. Why make ACM so special (people have been doing their jobs acm style for ages)and place it against 'normal bpm'."

    We have never said that ACM is BPM in any way at all. The title of the book was "Mastering the Unpredictable". Some people really don't believe this. Some don't believe that there is any such thing as an unpredictable process. Some people think this is a marketing stunt.

    However, I urge those who are interested to consider: what does it really mean to support work that is different every time. Different like the way that you visit a grocery store is different every time. You might say: "Yeah, but I wouldn't use BPM for that!" I agree.

  • Keith and all,

    Didn't read your whole story because I just returned from a 14 hour drive from budapest. During that trip I had more than enough time to rethink this discussion and suddenly I realised the fact that my native language is not English might indeed have caused some confusing.

    When I used the word roadmap in my analogy I actually had in mind a thing that better can be called the route. For most people a roadmap will mean a piece of paper with all the roads in a country/city drawn on it. That's not what I meant. I meant the route you plan for a trip. So this route is the process map and the trip is the real execution of the process.

    Then indeed it might not be possibe to plan a route upfront for acm style processes.

    So excuse for this confusion.

    But now everybody starts storytelling here, lets assume you are on a hilltop and see a beautiful castle on a hill a few miles away. As a process is the thing to create a result the result for this process is 'reached the castle on the other hill'.

    Between you and the castle there is a very large forest. But you are lucky. Just before you want to start walking, a man comes out of the woods. He says he came from the castle and has written down all the steps he took to reach the hill you are on. Allthough the man looks strange with his long jacket an pointy teeth, you trust him and follow his notes in reverse order. Left at the big stone. After 5 oak trees go right. Cross the river at the wooden bridge and finally you reach the castle. This trip was a little workflow style. You did all the steps , reached the desired result, but actually have no clue if things are done smart.

    But now assume you don't meet the man and start walking without a route map. During the trip you will run into things you have to cope with. You walk miles along the river to find a bridge, hide 45 minutes for a bear and climb in trees to see where the castle is. This is more acm style trip. During the trio you decide what is the best next step. But there are also other people that want to reach the same castle but base their decisions on their individual case. Some are good swimmers and don't search for a bridge. Others cut som trees to create a path etc. Depending on their situation they all create their own route.

    What if all these people had gps trackers? Finally yo will have a lot of information about all the followed routes and can use this information to find out what routes and made decisions work best. Looks like process mining. This can help you to get more grip on the process in more, as calles above, 'normal bpm' style. You can even use a tool (satnav) to help you. You can even make clear the difference between the result and goal. The result is reach the castle but you decide if you wanna be there fast, short distance or a touristic route. The satnav will guide you on your trip to reach the result with the set goals for that.

    In this case the satnav needs some predefinec routes, so might acm style processes slightly turn into more 'normal bpm' style processes?

    Back to the question. As acm will have no predefined route, the value of bpmn wil not be that much I think.

    But what is the real point of the above story? Don't start discussing a process with its route. Start with the discussion if the result you are talking about is worth a process at all.

    In this case that nice castle was situated in the city of Bran, Romania. And then you probably know that being at that castle is not such a desirable result. All the people that made the trip wish they never did it as they all ended with two little holes in their neck.......

  • Emiel, the "explorer" example is a good one.

    ACM is the example of "assume you don't meet the man and start walking without a route map." This is the situation that many innovators find themselves in.

    Not only do they not have a map, but they are compelled to go anyway without delay. They can't afford to draw up a map - no time, and it would cost way too much. Instead, as an explorer, they make rough goals, monitor progress, and refine the goals as they go along: your river example is perfect.

    There is no GPS. It would be great if there was one, but there simply isn't.

    There are wise people (knowledge workers) who have learned a lot about what to do to get through a wild forest. They can't draw up a detailed map, but their knowledge can be useful to get you there. Do you reject them because they can't draw up a map? Do you reject them because they can't write down all the rules that you might need to follow? Such tacit knowledge can be immense and valuable, and that is the situation that most business people are in.

    The above is a description about the FIRST explorer into an area. After that explorer there may be many who follow. First with rough, hand drawn maps. Then, the cartographers get involved, and make tourist maps that not only give you all the possible routes, but point out where the movie stars live in the area. Given such a map, you can then choose a route that includes the sights you are interested in seeing, while getting there in the minimum amount of time.

    When we talk about BPM, we are referring to this process of making the map better and better. We enter a cycle of noticing which tourists are pleased, and which are eaten by dragons, and we modify the map appropriately over time. It makes sense to use a person who is a specialist at making maps, and it also makes sense to use standard symbols so that the readers can understand easily. This is what BPM is all about.

    ACM, however, is for those very first explorers, who really have no map. They have no need for complex cartography. Theoretically, an explorer could start by making a tourist map of what is known, and then modify that map as the exploration proceeds but they don't because it takes too much time, it is too much work, and it gets in the way of exploring.

    It should be easy to see that an explorer that focuses on the job of exploring will get a lot further a lot faster than one who starts by making a tourist map of what is known. Very rough maps are needed, just enough to understand the current goals, but in a form that can be easily changed by the explorer directly. To assume that these are going to be just like the tourist maps, only with a few extensions, is missing the point of what the explorer does.

  • Keith,

    Agree. Conclusion BPMN and ACM: No team.

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